Closing in on Jurassic Park

Several years ago, while I was still working at Lund University, one of my colleagues Dr Johan Lindgren came to me one day with a microscope slide and asked me if I could help him check if there was anything in it. The only things we found were very small (ca 10-15 μm) spiny oval things, definitely not something palynological but most likely something organic of some sort.

Johan Lindgren showed me a paper by Mary Schweizer et al. (2007) which depicted small spiny cells from soft-tissue preserved inside bones from three different dinosaurs Tyrannosaurus rex, Triceratops horridus and Brachylophosaurus canadensis.

These cells were believed to be osteocytes, small star-shaped cells that reside inside bones and which can live as long as the organism itself and are capable of bone deposition and resorption.

The small spiny oval things that Johan Lindgren had in his slide definitely looked similar, although they did not come from a dinosaur but from a 70 million year old Mosasaur.  Because this bone came from a marine reptile, a creature that had lived and died in the ocean, Johan Lindgren was determined to rule out that contamination from sea-sediment or other organisms was the source of the small spiny cells, and after years of research he finally published his results in the highly acclaimed open-access journal PLos One: Lindgren et al. 2011: Microscopic evidence of Cretaceous Bone Proteins. The photographic plate below from the Lindgren et al. (2011) paper shows the tiny spiny osteocytes still looking amazing after 70 million years!! 🙂

Fig. 1. from the Lindgren et al. (2011) paper showing the spiny osteocytes in photos A-F.

Fig. 1. from the Lindgren et al. (2011) paper showing the spiny osteocytes in photos A-F.

Research performed on soft-tissue preserved in fossil bones are bringing us closer to the plot of Stephen Spielberg’s 1993 motion picture “Jurassic Park”, after a novel by Michael Crichton. Mary Schweitzer and her colleagues have just published a new paper in the journal Bone: Schweitzer et al. (2013): Molecular analyses of dinosaur osteocytes support the presence of endogenous molecules, in which their data are the first to support preservation of multiple proteins and to present multiple lines of evidence for material consistent with DNA in dinosaurs.

You can read more about this study on: ScienceDaily

However, there is still a long way to go before anyone can genetically modify frog-DNA and recreate Tyrannosaurus rex or any other dinosaurs like they did in “Jurassic Park”.

Jurassic Park logo, borrowed from the official website:
Check it out!